Number of pages: 100 | Report Format: PDF | Published date: July 05, 2023
Historical Years – 2021 | Base Year – 2022 | Forecasted Years – 2023 to 2031
According to the deep-dive market assessment study by Growth Plus Reports, global acute flaccid myelitis is expected to register a revenue CAGR of 3.2% during the forecast period.
Acute Flaccid Myelitis Market Fundamentals
Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a life-threatening illness that appears like polio and was first identified in unusual clusters in California in 2012 and Colorado in 2014. With hundreds of cases recorded in Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, North America, and South America, AFM is now recognized as a widespread condition. Recent AFM is thought to have been mostly caused by epidemic enteroviral infection, notably enterovirus D68 infection. Cases typically occur in geographic clusters in temperate climates and follow a clear seasonal-biennial pattern. Young children are most often affected by AFM, characterized by an abrupt onset of flaccid weakness in one or more limbs and abnormalities in the grey matter of the spinal cord. Additional muscles may be affected include the extraocular, respiratory, bulbar, and trunk muscles. Clinical signs of other acute weakness-causing conditions, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, demyelinating myelitis, and other infectious myelitis, may resemble those of AFM.
Less than 15% of incidents of AFM in adults (more frequently in the immunocompromised) occur, with AFM in adults perhaps needing to be more reported or recognized. AFM is mostly a pediatric condition. There may be a small preference for men. Most AFM patients experience a prodromal sickness that includes a fever and respiratory symptoms (such as a cough, rhinorrhea, pharyngitis, or a disease that resembles asthma). Vomiting and diarrhea are less common gastrointestinal complaints.
Headache, stiffness in the neck, or a return of fever can occur together with the development of neurological symptoms. Pain in the afflicted limb(s), neck, or lower back often precedes limb weakening in patients. Flaccid weakness usually affects one or more limbs and is asymmetrical, with a preference for the upper limbs and proximal muscle groups. In addition to limb weakness, over 30% of patients exhibit motor deficits localized to the brainstem's cranial nerve motor nuclei. These deficits are largely bulbar and facial weakness, with extraocular muscle weakness occurring less frequently.
The most effective diagnostic procedure for AFM is an MRI of the spinal cord. The distinctive feature of AFM is spinal cord grey matter T2 hyperintensity. When examined axially, early acute phase lesions impact the whole grey matter of the spinal cord. They are often confluent and poorly delineated, with varied degrees of surrounding white matter involvement and edema. Grey matter lesions in the spinal cord are often longitudinally widespread.
Acute Flaccid Myelitis Market Dynamics
The acute flaccid myelitis market is growing due to rising awareness, increasing surveillance initiatives, identification and reporting of AFM cases. The number of reported cases of AFM has increased as medical professionals and public health organizations have become more cautious in finding and diagnosing the condition. For instance, Acute Flaccid Myelitis Association aims to increase public understanding and support for this disease. They also offer assistance to parents, caregivers, and those who are experiencing AFM symptoms. Their funding is used to meet the requirements of the patients. They utilize donations to pay for therapies, treatments, and equipment not covered by insurance for families. More than 90% of donations are used immediately to meet the critical medical requirements of AFMA grant candidates. Additionally, the federal government has noticed the illness due to the advocacy efforts of AFM-affected families, the Acute Flaccid Myelitis Association (AFMA), and medical professionals who treat patients with the condition. Senator Kirsten Gillibrand, for example, proposed $1 billion in funding for AFM research in 2018.
Accurate and rapid diagnosis of AFM patients has been made possible by improved methods for diagnosis, including laboratory testing and enhanced imaging equipment. This is likely because more information is available on illness and its prevalence. For instance, according to the National Library of Medicine 2021, 96% of documented AFM cases in the USA 2018 were hospital admissions, with 58% going to an intensive care unit. Early management's cornerstone is supportive care and vigilant monitoring targeted toward possibly developing critical problems. Moreover, according to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, as of June 2, 2023, twenty reports of patients under investigation (PUIs) had been made, and three of those reports had been confirmed. Since August 2014, when CDC started monitoring AFM, there have been 727 confirmed cases. Since then, the CDC has conducted extensive investigations into cases. In 2014, 2016, and 2018, there was a rise in AFM incidence, particularly involving young children.
However, AFM does not currently have a particular therapy other than symptomatic assistance. Research is still being done to understand the illness better and provide therapies. There are scientific possibilities and needs for further study in AFM, according to a 2020 article in Clinical Infectious Diseases. The long-term outcomes of AFM and juvenile transverse myelitis were compared in a 2020 study published in BMC Neurology.
Acute Flaccid Myelitis Market Ecosystem
The global acute flaccid myelitis market is analyzed from the following perspectives by treatment type and region.
Acute Flaccid Myelitis by Treatment Type
Based on the treatment type, the global acute flaccid myelitis market is segmented into pharmacological treatment, physical & occupational therapy, plasmapheresis, and others.
There haven't been any regulated investigations of medical AFM therapies. To increase the body's resistance to viruses, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) can be administered. Steroids and plasma exchange are two common medications used to treat transverse myelitis (TM), and they have been tested in AFM with varying degrees of success.
Early commencement of physical and occupational therapy (PT and OT) is essential for successfully treating AFM. Both occupational and physical therapy are crucial. Children frequently attend treatment sessions for weeks or months. For the greatest results, children with AFM need to be treated by a multidisciplinary team. Even if full muscle function cannot be recovered, early intervention may improve everyday functioning and restore function to the damaged limbs.
Acute Flaccid Myelitis by Region
Based on the treatment type, the global acute flaccid myelitis market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East & Africa.
The number of instances of poliomyelitis dropped to 209 worldwide in 2014 due to poliovirus vaccinations, with nonpolio enteroviruses being the main cause of new cases of acute flaccid myelitis. Acute flaccid myelitis cases have been observed most recently during enterovirus D68 outbreaks in North America and Europe, indicating the possibility of another non-polio enterovirus linked to acute flaccid myelitis. North America had an outbreak of enterovirus D68 infections in the autumn of 2014, the majority of which were accompanied by symptoms of the upper respiratory tract. The authors describe a cluster of three individuals who had acute flaccid myelitis in Alberta, Canada, during an enterovirus D68 epidemic, with enterovirus D68 found in two of these patients.
The number of reports of acute flaccid paralysis cases has increased in the United Kingdom (UK), with many cases being identified as AFM. Unexpected clusters of AFM were first recorded in the US in 2014. Clinically, various individuals often have poliomyelitis-like paralysis, affecting one or more limbs, with no discernible sensory loss and distinctive grey matter abnormalities on MRI. A prevalent EV virus known as EV-D68, which appeared to circulate biennially in late summer and fall and was connected to severe acute respiratory and neurological disease between 2014 and 2016 in Europe, Asia, and North America, was temporally associated with an increase in AFM cases.
Acute Flaccid Myelitis Market Competitive Landscape
Some of the prominent market players in the global acute flaccid myelitis market include,
Acute Flaccid Myelitis Strategic Development
Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a severe spinal disease. The rapid development of arm or leg weakness and slowed reflexes are symptoms.
The revenue CAGR of the acute flaccid myelitis market during the forecast period is 3.2%.
Some of the prominent market players in the global market include Baxter International Inc., Octapharma AG, and Behring GmbH
The pharmacological treatment segment dominated the acute flaccid myelitis market in 2022.
The rising awareness and surveillance initiatives are the prime factors driving the acute flaccid myelitis market growth.
*Insights on financial performance are subject to the availability of information in the public domain