Diabetes is a chronic disorder brought on by either insufficient insulin production by the pancreas or inefficient insulin utilization by the body. Insulin is responsible for blood sugar level control. Uncontrolled diabetes induce hyperglycemia, also known as high blood glucose or raised blood sugar and hypoglycemia known as low blood glucose or low blood sugar which over time can seriously harm many different body systems, including the neurons and blood vessels.
Those who have diabetes are more likely to develop diabetic neuropathy, a type of nerve damage. All over the body, damaged nerves can result from high blood sugar (glucose). Nerve damage caused by diabetic neuropathy most frequently occurs in the legs and feet. Diabetic neuropathy symptoms can range from numbness to discomfort in the hands, feet, and legs, depending on which nerves are affected. Additionally, it can lead to issues with the heart, blood vessels, digestive system, and urinary tract. Some people only experience minor symptoms. However, diabetic neuropathy can also be extremely painful and incapacitating for certain people.
In 2019, The American Diabetes Association Stated that almost 11.3% of the population, or 37.3 million Americans, had diabetes. Of the 37.3 million adult diabetics, 28.7 million had their condition properly diagnosed, and 8.5 million is undiagnosed. Nearly 1.9 million have type 1 diabetes in America. In 2021, International Diabetes Federation stated that Around 537 million individuals (20-79 years old) worldwide have diabetes. By 2030, almost 643 million people will be diagnosed with diabetes worldwide, and by 2045, it will reach 783 million. In nations with low and intermediate incomes, 3 out of 4 adults with diabetes reside. Almost 6.7 million people have died from diabetes.
Type of Diabetic Neuropathy
Distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy is also known as peripheral neuropathy. It first affects the feet, legs, hands, and arms. Peripheral neuropathy symptoms are frequent at night.
• Numbness or diminished sensitivity to pain or temperature changes
• Sense of tingling or burning
• Cramping or sharp pain
• Weakened muscles
Autonomic neuropathy affects autonomic nervous system controls such as blood pressure, heart rate, bladder, digestive system, and others.
• Drop in blood pressure after getting out of a chair or sleeping down that can make one feel lightheaded or even faint
• Bowel or bladder issues
• Nausea, and loss of appetite
• Trouble swallowing
Proximal Neuropathy / Radiculoplexux (Diabetic Polyradiculopathy)
It usually affects one side of the body and typically affects nerves in the thighs, buttocks, hips, and legs. Damage like this can cause a serious deterioration in muscle tone and be extremely painful.
• Severe pain in hip, thighs, or buttock
• Trouble while sitting and getting out of a seated position
• Abdomen or chest pain
Mononeuropathy / Focal Neuropathy
In mononeuropathy only one nerve is damaged and nerve injury can affect face and leg. The majority of cases of diabetic neuropathy develop unexpectedly, and older persons are more frequently affected.
• Double vision or trouble focusing
• One side face paralysis
• Hand or finger numbness or tingling
• Weakness in the hand
Diagnosis of Diabetic Neuropathy
Blood Glucose Test
A blood glucose test determines the amount of glucose in blood
Blocked nerves are identified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans
Electric activity in muscles can be detected using electromyograms